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Active member
February 26, 2011
here is a thread where everybody can explain his own language :lol:

So, let's start with :de:German

The Persons
Ich (I)
Du (You)
Er/Sie/Es (He/She/It)
Wir (We)
Ihr (You)
Sie (They)

The Articles
In German, there are 3 definite articles:
der (maskulin)
die (feminin)
das (neutrum)

And there are also 2 indefinite articles:
ein (maskulin/neutrum)
eine (feminin)

You use "der" for Nouns which are masculine, "die" for nouns which are feminine and "das" for nouns which are neutrum (I think there is no english word).

If you have a plural and you want to use the definite article, you have to use "die"
das Haus
Plural: die Häuser
die Ente
Plural: die Enten

You use "ein" for nouns which are masculine or neutrum. You use "eine" for nouns which are feminine.

das Haus (the house) ---> ein Haus (a house)
der Vogel (the bird) ---> ein Vogel (a bird)
die Ente (the duck) ---> eine Ente (a duck)

If you have a plural, and you want to use the indefinite article, you have no article. Example:
eine Ente
Plural: Enten (No article)

The capitalization
In German, this is a bit difficult.

When do you write a word big?
- At the Beginning of a sentence
- When the word is a noun


der Baum (the tree) ---> noun, big
hübsch (pretty) ---> adjective, small
spielen (to play) ---> verb, small

How do you conjugate the verbs?
Example: spielen (to play)

Ich spiele
Du spielst
Er/Sie/Es spielt
Wir spielen
Ihr spielt
Sie spielen

In German, there are 2 types of verbs: Regular verbs and Irregular verbs. Most of the verbs are regular and they are conjugated like this.
The infinitive of every (of the irregular verbs too) ends with -en. (Example: spielen (play, regular), essen (eat, irregular))

I think there is no rule - I think if you want to learn german you have to learn the plural with your vocabs.

(The word behind the "/" is the plural form)
ein Baum/Bäume - a tree
ein Junge/Jungen - a boy
ein Mädchen/Mädchen - a girl (Funny fact: "Mädchen" is neutrum)
eine Ente/Enten - a duck
ein Hund/Hunde - a dog
eine Katze/Katzen - a cat
ein Haus/Häuser - a house
ein Fenster/Fenster - a window
ein Lied/Lieder - a song (But in german we say "song" too - "ein Song))

Verbs (regular):
spielen - play
schreiben - write
singen - sing
riechen - smell
tanzen - dance
machen - make
hören - hear
versuchen - try
verstehen - understand
reden - talk
lachen - laugh

gut - good
schlecht - bad
böse - bad
(You say "schlecht" when you write for example a test, and it was bad. You say "böse" when somebody is a bad person.)
hübsch - pretty
schön - beautiful
hässlich - ugly
groß - big
klein - small
laut - loud
leise - quiet

Other words:
mit - with
ohne - without
nach - after
dann - the
vor (temporally) - before

The verb "sein" (be)
Ich bin
Du bist
Er/Sie/Es ist
Wir sind
Ihr seid
Sie sind

The Numbers
1 Eins
2 Zwei
3 Drei
4 Vier
5 Fünf
6 Sechs
7 Sieben
8 Acht
9 Neun
10 Zehn
11 Elf
12 Zwölf
13 Dreizehn
14 Vierzehn
15 Fünfzehn
16 Sechzehn
17 Siebzehn
18 Achtzehn
19 Neunzehn
20 Zwanzig

Now you can make some sentences :lol:
If you have any question, ask me :D
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ohh , Sie haben eine gute sprache


Active member
October 16, 2010
Hihi, I copied your lay-out :). So it's easier to compare and 'learn' the languages

:nl: Dutch - Nederlands

The Persons
Ik (I)
Jij/Je/(Ge) (You)
Hij/Zij/Het (He/She/It)
Wij (We)
Jullie (You)
Zij (They)
U (Gij) (You polite form)

Note: 'ge' & 'gij' are only used in Flanders.

The Articles
In Dutch, there are 2 definite articles, but 3 genders:
de (maskulin)
de (feminin)
het (neutrum)

NOTE: 'de deur' (the door) is feminin, while 'de hond' (the dog) is masculin. So if you want to refer to it in a sentence, you have to know the gender in order to use 'hij' or 'zij' properly.

And there are also 1 indefinite article:
een (maskulin/feminin/neutrum)

You use "de" for Nouns which are masculine & feminin and "het" for nouns which are neutrum.

If you have a plural and you want to use the definite article, you have to use "de"
het huis (the house)
Plural: de huizen (the houses)
de eend (the duck)
Plural: de eenden (the ducks)

You use "een" for nouns which are masculine, feminin or neutrum. .

Het huis (the house) ---> een huis (a house)
De Vogel [Masculin] (the bird) ---> een vogel (a bird)
De eend [Feminin] (the duck) ---> een eend (a duck)

If you have a plural, and you want to use the indefinite article, you have no article. Example:
Een eend/ een huis/ een vogel
Plural: Eenden, huizen, vogels

The capitalization
We don't write every noun with a capital

How do you conjugate the verbs?
Example: spelen (to play)

Ik speel
Jij/je/ge speelt
Hij/zij/het speelt
Wij spelen
Jullie spelen
Zij spelen
U speelt

NOTE: when you use the inverse structure with 'jij/je' you need to omit the 't'. So:
Jij/je speelt --> speel jij/je
'Ge' does not follow this rule.
Ge speelt --> speelt ge

Verbs in Dutch can be classified in 4 categories: weak verbs (zwakke werkwoorden), strong verbs (sterke werkwoorden), mixed verbs & irregular verbs.

Weak verb: werken (to work) - Hij werkt (he works) - Hij werkte (he worked) - gewerkt (worked)
Strong verb: lopen (to run) - hij loopt (he runs) - hij liep (he runned) - gelopen (runned)
Mixed verbs: lachen (to laugh) - hij lacht (he laughs) - hij lachte (he laughed) - gelachen (laughed)
Irregular verbs: Zijn (to be): ik ben, jij bent, hij is, wij zijn, jullie zijn, zij zijn.

I think there are rules, but I don't know them

(The word behind the "/" is the plural form)
een boom/bomen - a tree
een jongen/jongens - a boy
een meisje/meisjes - a girl (Funny fact: "Meisje" is neutrum)
een eend/eenden - a duck
een hond/honden - a dog
een kat /katten - a cat
een huis/huizen - a house
een venster/vensters - a window
een lied/liedje - a song

Deminutive forms
Diminutive form (abbreviated dim), is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment.

In Dutch we use the forms: -je, -tje, -pje, -etje, -kje

een auto - een autootje (a car/a little car)
een jongen - een jongetje (a boy / a little boy)
een café - een cafeetje (a pub / a little pub)
een bloem - een bloemetje/een bloempje (a flower/ a little flower)


Een - One
Twee - Two
Drie - Three
Vier - Four
Vijf - Five
Zes - Six
Zeven - Seven
Acht - Eight
Negen - Nine
Tien - Ten
Elf - Eleven
Twaalf - Twelve

Note: The cardinal numerals from 21 to 99 (apart from the tens) are constructed in a regular way, by adding en (=and) and the name of the appropriate multiple of ten to the name of the units position. (The last written digit is actually pronounced first)
eg: 26 --> zesentwintig (six-and-twenty)
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haha :p i translate with google translate ... because my father isn't here :) ...

i want to say to you because i'm sorry :)


Active member
February 3, 2011
Bodegraven, Netherlands
Great summary of Dutch language seb!

I will add some small things:

We have verbs that split up after being conjugated, for example the verb 'aanraken' (To Touch)

Ik raak de tafel aan. (I touch the table) 'raak aan' stands for the action. The splitting is the case in present and past tense. Also, 'splitting verbs' don't use the full verb in the plural form.

This means that: 'Wij aanraken de tafel', Is incorrect. We still have to split the verb. So: Wij raken de tafel aan. (We touch the table)

Some other small notes:

- In plural all nouns can't be preceded by 'het'. Only by 'de'. Also there aren't any indefinite articles in plural used.
- 'au' and 'ou' are pronounced the exact same way. this also counts for 'ij' and 'ei'.
- the order in which the words are used in a sentence are very irregular and can be changed even though the meaning of the sentence stays the same.

For example:

Ik heb gisteren in het winkelcentrum een zilveren armband gekocht. (Yesterday I bought a silver bracelet in the shopping mall)
But if you translate this sentence word after word it makes no sense:

Ik heb gisteren in het winkelcentrum een zilveren armband gekocht. (literally: I have yesterday in the shopping mall a silver bracelet bought)

And I can also swap some words:

Gisteren heb ik een zilveren armband gekocht in het winkelcentrum. (literally: Yesterday have I a silver bracelet bought in the shopping mall)
Although It still means: Yesterday I bought a silver bracelet in the shopping mall.

- Some colours:

Red - Rood
Yellow - Geel
Blue - Blauw
Green - Groen
Orange - Oranje (The national colour of :nl:)
Purple - Paars
Gray - Grijs
Pink - Roze
Brown - Bruin
Black - Zwart
White - Wit

Hope you know a bit more now! :)


I will never go to the course for other languages ​​.. All will learn here :) :D


December 11, 2010
body in Bulgaria, heart in Greece (^_^)
OK, I`ll do a post for :bg: (bulgarian) :)

First of all, bulgarian is written with it`s own alphabet - the cyrilic . The cyrilic alphabet was made in Bulgaria, but it changed several times and today we use the more simlified version of the alphabet (which also is called "the russian version").

so the alphabet goes like this

Аа- you read it like "a" in the english word "car"
Бб- like 'b' in "book"
Вв- like "v" in "vet"
Гг- like "g" in "good"
Дд- like "d" in "doctor"
Ее- like "e" in "vet"
Жж- like "s" in "pleasure", transcribed as "zh" or "j"
Зз- like "z" in "zebra"
Ии- like "i" in ""insect"
Йй- like "y" in "yellow", transcribed as "y" or "j"
Кк- like "k" in "bank"
Лл- In bulgarian we have 2 types of "l", your read it like "l" in "Portugal" or like "l" in "lemon".
Мм- like "m" in "make"
Нн- like "n" in "Norway"
Оо- like "o" in "orange"
Пп- like "p" in "pen"
Рр- like "r" in "ruff". Note : the "r" in bulgarian is a little harder then the "r" in english, but not so hard as the "r" in finnish
Сс- like "s" in "snake"
Тт- like "t" in "train"
Уу- like "oo" in "cartoon"
Фф- like "f" in "fish"
Хх- like "h" in "Hungary"
Цц- "ts" said really quickly. Can`t think of an english equiwalent of the sound, transcribed as "ts" or as "c"
Чч- like "ch" in "chair"
Шш- like "sh" in "shoes"
Щщ- like "st" in the german word "stadt", transcribed as "sht"
Ъъ- like "i" in "girl", transcribed with ["a]
ь - like "y" in "yellow". This letter is used only after a consonant and never in the begining of the word, that`s why it doesn`t have a capitol later.
Юю- like the word "you", transcribed as "yu"
Яя- like "ia" in "Bulgaria", transcribed as "ya"

So remember "P" is "r", "H" is "n", "X" is "h", "C" is "s"

In bulgarian the letters are read only 1 way, it doesn`t change like in english . For your comfort, I`ll post the transcribtion in "[]"

The Persons
(I) аз [az]
(You) ти [ti]
(He/She/It) той/тя/то [toy/tya/to]
(We) ние [nie]
(You) вие [vie]
(They) те [te]

Note, the persons are written with normal letters, if вие [vie] is written with capitol, the person is formal, if it`s not capitalized, it`s plural.

The Articles
In bulgarian, there are 3 definite articles for the 3 genders which are put as a sufix of the word ( which is typical for the slavic languages ) :
masculin : -ът/-а [-"at/-a]
femininе : -та [-ta]
neuterum: -то [-to]

If you have a plural and you want to use the definite article, you have to use -те [-te]

And there are no indefinite articles.

Here is how it goes :

(m)вестник - вестникЪТ/ вестникА [vestnik - vestik"AT/ vestnikA]
(f)маса - масаТА [masa - masaTA]
(n)цвете - цветеТО [tsvete - tsveteTO]
(pl) къщи - къщиТЕ [k"ashti - k"ashtiTE]

No, wait, there is more. In bulgarian we don`t have genders only for things, but we also gender the adjectives too. And we have plural for them too. But in a normal dictionary you can find the adjectives mostly in male gender. Which is great, cause if we switched the genders in the dictionaries the mess would be complete :lol:
The adjectives also get sufixes like the articles,

For female ends on -а[-a]
For neuter ends on -o[-o]
For plural it ends on -и[-i]

So here is how it goes :
Let`s take the adjective for "pretty" which is хубав [hubav]
(m) хубав [hubav]
(f) хубавА [hubava]
(n) хубавО [hubavo]
(pl) хубавИ [hubavi]

The gender of the adjectives depends on the next word.

So let`s see examples:

(m)хубав ден [h'ubav den] - pretty day
(f)хубава маса [hubava masa] - pretty table
(n)хубаво куче [hubavo kuche] - pretty dog
(pl)хубави дрехи [hubavi drehi] - pretty clothes

The capitalization
In bulgarian, this is a bit easy

When do you write a word big?
- At the Beginning of a sentence
- When the word is a name
- When we speak formal, the person вие [vie] becomes Вие [Vie]
- Also when we speak about God, the word for God (Господ) is always with capital letter. We have another word for normal gods like greek gods, then the word is with normal letters

How do you conjugate the verbs?

The verbs in 3rd Sg can end in -е, -и, -а(я) [Аs you know a and я are the same sound and я is phoneticly typed ['а] or [йа] which is basicly [a] with softnes of the consonant before [a] (летя is transcribed [лет`а] ) or when the a has й before (ягода is transcribed [йагода]) ]

Here is the table of the transformations

1. - no change with the normal form of the verb that is given in the dictionary
2. - -ш [-sh]
3.- see below how it`s changed
1. - -м(е) [-m(e)]
2.- -те [-te]
3.- -т [t]
Here is the table to see better the conjuagations in bulgarian language

І спр.

чета (read)

аз чета [az cheta]
ти четеш [ti chetesh]
той/ тя/ то четЕ [toy/tya/to chete]
ние четем [nie chetem]
вие четете [vie chetete]
те четат [te chetat]

ІІ спр.

говоря (speak)

аз говоря [az govorya]
ти говориш [ti govorish]
той/тя/то говорИ [toy/tya/to govori]
ние говорим [nie govorim]
вие говорите [vie govorite]
те говорят [te govoryat]

ІІІ спр. (-а)

искам (want)

аз искам [az iskam]
ти искаш [ti iskash]
той/тя/то искА [toy/tya/to iska]
ние искаме [nie iskame]
вие искате [vie iskate]
те искат [te iskat]

ІІІ спр. (-я)

отговарям (answer)

аз отговарям [az otgovaryam]
ти отговаряш [ti otgovaryash]
той/тя/то отговарЯ [toy/tya/to otgovarya]
ние отговаряме [nie otgovaryame]
вие отговаряте [vie otgovaryate]
те отговарят [te otgovaryat]

The rules for the plural forms are and will take place, so I`ll just post a link where i explained the rules of the plural forms in their full glory in another forum specialized for that here

дърво [d"arvo] - a tree
момче [momche] - a boy
момиче [momiche] - a girl
патка [patka] - a duck
куче [kuche] - a dog
котка [kotka] - a cat
къща [k"ashta] - a house
прозорец [prozorets] - a window
песен [pesen] - a song

играя [igraya]- play
пиша [pisha]- write
пея [peya]- sing
мириша [mirisha]- smell
танцувам [tantsuvam]- dance
правя [pravya]- make
чувам [chuvam]- hear
пробвам [probvam]- try
разбирам [razbiram]- understand
говоря [govorya]- talk
смея се [smeya se] - laugh

Adjectives (given in masculin) :
добър[dob"ar]- good
лош [losh] - bad
хубав [hubav]- pretty
красив [krasiv] - beautiful
грозен [grozen] - ugly
голям [golyam] - big
малък [mal"ak] - small

Other words:
с/със [s/s"as] - with (we use с[s"as] when the next word starts with с or з [z])
без [bez] - without
след [sled] - after
пред [pred] - before

The verb съм [s"am] (be)
аз съм [az s"am]
ти си [ti si]
той/тя/то е [toy/tya/to e]
ние сме [nie sme]
вие сте [vie ste]
те са [te sa]

The Numbers
1 едно [edno]
2 две [dve]
3 три [tro]
4 четири [chetiri]
5 пет [pet]
6 шест [shest]
7 седем [sedem]
8 осем [osem]
9 девет [devet]
10 десет [deset]
11 единайсет [edinayset]
12 дванайсет [dvanayset]
13 тринайсет [trinayset]
14 четиринайсет [chetirinayset]
15 петнайсет [petnayset]
16 шестнайсет [shestnayset]
17 седемнайсет [sedemnayset]
18 осемнайсет [osemnayset]
19 деветнайсет [devetnayset]
20 двайсет [dvayset]
31 трийсет и едно [triyset i edno]
42 четирийсет и две [chetiriyset i dve]
54 петдесет и четири [petdeset i chetiri]
67 шейсет и седем [sheyset i sedem]
72 седемдесет и две [sedemdeset i dve]
89 осемдесет и девет [osemdeset i devet]
95 деветдесет и пет [devetdeset i pet]
100 сто [sti]
200 двеста [dvesta]
300 триста [trista]
400 четиристотин [chetiristotin]
and the rest are like the numbers from 1 to 10 + стотин [stotin]

Now you can make some sentences :lol:
If you have any question, ask me :D
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Well-known member
December 23, 2010
Westchester - Los Angeles

Ako, ko (I)
Ikaw, kaw (You)
Sya (He/She/It) *note, there's no gender equivalent
Kami (We exclusive)
Tayo (We inclusive)
Kayo (You)
Sila (They)

The Articles
1 basic article equivalent to the and a in English

Again, there's neither gender nor amount specified in the articles

Singular Ang bahay --> The house
Plural Ang mga bahay --> The houses (mga is a particle that denotes plurality).

Important particle


For those who speak French, the concept behind ng is similar to the concept behind "de" and "à". Also, it ties back an idea to an original reference(s).


kasama ng mga tao--> companion of/to people
sampung saging--> 10 bananas (literally, 10 of bananas).

The capitalization and punctuation
Capitalization and punctuation are like in English. We capitalize the first letter, proper nouns. Punctuation marks look exactly like the ones in English.

Basic verbs

Verb conjugation in Tagalog is very complicated. Unlike the Indo-European languages that usually only changes suffixes to conjugate verbs, Tagalog changes prefixes, suffixes, infixes and circumfixes to conjugate a verb. Also, another shocker is that verbs in Tagalog are not subject centered, you can conjugate them in various aspects and foci of speech which shall be discussed later.

Note there's no verb "to be" in Tagalog, there are only an existential marker (mayroon) and a copula (ay)


Ay never changes, it stays the same regardless of the pronoun you use.

Ako ay--> I am
Ikaw ay--> you are
Sya ay--> he/she/it is
Kami ay--> we (exclusive) are
Tayo ay--> we (inclusive) are
Kayo ay--> you are
Sila ay--> they are

Mayroon is an existential marker that is widely used in Tagalog. When translated word per word into English, it means There is. However, it is not used exclusively for that function.

Mayroong aso dyan--> there's a dog there
Mayroon siyang tatlong aso--> he/she has three dogs.

Real verbss
To eat --> kumain (infinitive form/imperative form)

kumain (past aspect for basic actor forms, conjugated for the actor of verbs)
kumakain (present aspect for basic actor forms)
kakain (future aspect for basic actor forms)

ikinain (past aspect for basic benefactive forms, conjugated for recepients of actions, or objects)
ikinakain (present aspect for basic benefactive forms)
ikakain (future aspect for basic benefactive forms)

ipinangkain (past aspect for basic instrumental forms, conjugated for the item used in action)
ipinapangkain (present aspect for basic instrumental forms)
ipapangkain (future aspect for basic instrumental forms)

pinagkainan (past aspect for basic locative forms, conjugated for the location of action)
pinagkakainan (present aspect for basic locative forms)
papagkainan (future tense for basic locative forms)

*note, in English, these ideas are not conveyed by means of a verb. For example ipinangkain (past aspect for basic instrumental form) literally translates to English as "the item used to eat" which is obviously not a verb, but a noun.

Other verbs have other forms such as directional, reason, reciprocal,


(to specify amount of the noun, you just put the number in front of the noun

ang/isang/mga puno - a/one/plural tree
ang/isang/mga lalaki - a, etc boy
ang/isang/mga babae- a, etc girl
ang/isang/mga bibe - a, etc duck
ang/isang/mga aso - a, etc dog
ang/isang/mga pusa - a, etc cat
ang/isang/mga bahay - a, etc house
ang/isang/mga bintana - a, etc window
ang/isang/mga kanta (awit works as well) - a, etc song

Verbs (regular):
maglaro - play
magsulat - write
kumanta - sing
umamoy - smell
sumayaw - dance
gumawa - make
makinig - hear
sumubok - try
makaintindi - understand
magsalita - talk
tumawa - laugh


*note: usually adjectives are formed by adding "ma" as a prefix to a noun.

mabute (there are other ways of saying it) - good
masama - bad
mayumi - pretty
maganda - beautiful
pangit - ugly
malaki - big
maliit - small
maingay - loud
(ma)tahimik - quiet

Other words:
kasama - with
wala - without
pagkatapos - after
bago - before

The Numbers
1 isa
2 dalawa
3 tatlo
4 apat
5 lima
6 anim
7 pito
8 walo
9 siyam
10 sampu
11 labing-isa
12 labing-dalawa
13 labing-tatlo
14 labing-apat
15 labing-lima
16 labing-anim
17 labing-pito
18 labing-walo
19 labing-syiam
20 Dalawangpu
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Active member
May 19, 2011
Okay, another language now!

Le français

The Persons
Les personnes

Je (I)
Tu (You) / Vous (polite form)
Il (He) / Elle (She)
Nous (We)
Vous (You)
Ils (They)

There is no neutral 3rd person singular, it depends on whether the substantive is "masculin" or "féminin". For example, "I love my house, it's charming" --> J'aime ma maison, elle est charmante.

The Articles
Les articles

"Le" (masculin) / "La" (féminin) (The)
"Un" / "Une" (indefinite)

Note, if the noun starts with a vowel, the definite article becomes " l' " like in "l'amour".

There is no way of knowing for sure if a noun is masculin or féminin, you have to know it by heart. For example, "apogée" (peak) sounds like something feminine, but it is masculine : "un apogée".

Some nouns can be masculin AND féminin. Sometimes, this doesn't change their meaning : you can say "un après-midi" or "une après-midi" (an afternoon). In other cases, it may induce a subtle variation in meaning or demonstrate a historical evolution. For example "amour" (love) used to be more feminine, but it is now overwhelmingly masculine in common usage.

Le pluriel

Contrary to Spanish, for example, the plural article in French will always be the masculine "les", even for feminine words.
The plural is formed by adding an "s" or "x". However, like many aspects of French grammar and spelling, this rule is subject to many exceptions.

How do you conjugate the verbs?
Comment conjugue-t-on les verbes ?

Conjugation is one of the most challenging aspects in a lot of languages, and French is no exception. What makes it hard for French learners is the fact that pronunciation gives little indication on spelling. See the verb "arriver".

tu arrives
il arrive
nous arrivons
vous arrivez
ils arrivent

Although the spelling differs, all persons of the singular and the 3rd person plural will be pronounced the same (you do not pronounce "s" or "nt"). Similarly, the infinitive "arriver" and 2nd person plural "arrivez" are also pronounced the same, "r" and "z" being silent.

The Numbers
Les nombres

1 un
2 deux
3 trois
4 quatre
5 cinq
6 six
7 sept
8 huit
9 neuf
10 dix
11 onze
12 douze
-- For Eurovision fans, this should be known territory! :-D --
13 treize
14 quatorze
15 quinze
16 seize
17 dix-sept
18 dix-huit
19 dix-neuf
20 vingt

30 trente
40 quarante
50 cinquante
60 soixante
70 soixante-dix (Belgian and Swiss French: septante)
80 quatre-vingt (Swiss French: huitante/octante)
90 quatre-vingt-dix (Belgian and Swiss French: nonante)
100 cent

I'll leave other francophones fill up the blanks. But this is a start :-D


Well-known member
May 22, 2010
^ The one thing I remember the most with French is the numbers, they've always stuck with me, dunno why :lol:. I always got confused though why 70, 80 and 90 were like that and not for instance, 'septante' for 70 :lol:.


Well-known member
June 8, 2011
Lol, I've just started learning French a few days ago! :lol: This will be a great help.
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